A check list of Avifaunal diversity in Semi-urban areas of Cuttack, India Implication on Conservation and Environmental Studies
Biodiversity is the term used to describe the variety of life found on earth. Urban deforestation is a serious problem due to much un-controlled anthropogenic activities. Birds play a vital role in regeneration of flowering plant species and help in the reforestation. This symbiotic relationship is not only for the sustainability, but it also plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of nature. The birds eat the fruits and help in the dispersion of seeds in different urban area of the city. They also help in the pollination of many flowering plants. Keeping this all in view, an attempt was made to check list of birds in semi urban area of Cuttack. Cuttack is a lush-green urban area situated in the eastern part of India. The perching frequencies have been recorded. Results revealed that out of 122 avian species, of which 18 furgivorous birds were recorded along with 08 birds as frequent seen as pollinators in this semi-urban areas. The study reveals that furgivorous and pollinating birds play a vital role in pollination and regeneration of flowering plants. The presence of such plants also regulates the existence of birds in urban areas. The present findings suggest that the conservation of plant wealth dependent upon the conservation of birds to make the environment eco-friendly.
Comparison of antibacterial activities of some selected wild cucurbits collected from Similipal Biosphere Reserve
Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is situated in the district of Mayurbhanj, Odisha. It forms the major part of Eastern Ghats having rich floral diversity. SBR is inhabited by many tribal communities too. They are in habit of using the wild phytoresources against different microbial infections. Wild cucurbits are prime components of the phytoresources of SBR. Keeping this in view, four wild cucurbits (Trichosanthus tricuspidata, Diplocyclos palmatus, Cucumis melo, Trichosanthus cucumerina) were collected from SBR and experimented for their antibacterial activities against five selected bacterial strains (Streptococcus mutans – MTCC 497, Streptococcus pyogenes – MTCC 1926, Vibrio cholerae – MTCC 3906, Shigella flexneri – MTCC 1457 and Salmonella typhi – MTCC 1252). The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of the extracts was determined using broth dilution assay. Results revealed that the methanol extract of T. tricuspidata fruits showed lowest MIC values against S. pyogenes whereas the acetone and methanol extract of C. melo fruits showed lowest MIC values against S. mutans. The paper highlights a comparative account of antibacterial potential of wild cucurbits collected from SBR and activity of the extracts against specific bacterial species.
Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India
A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance.
The present study reflects the major medicinal flora of Nandan Kanan Sanctuary, a small protected area along the Kanjia Lake, in the district of Cuttack, Odisha, India. The survey reveals that there were 61 plant species belonging to 40 different families highlighted the floral wealth of the sanctuary.The dominant floristic components were Aerva lanata, Biophytum sensitivum, Christella dentate, Heliotropium indicum, Hyptis suaveolens, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia fistula, Polygonum barbatum, Lygodium flexuosum, Mimosa pudica, Leonotis nepetifolia etc. The details of these plants in terms of local name, family, plant part(s) used, chemicals present and their use in health care such as malnutrition, communicable diseases, metabolic disorder and other miscellaneous effects has been listed. The implications of this study in terms of sustainable use by the local community, conservation, and education have been discussed.
The Pale-capped Pigeon Columba punicea is classified as Vulnerable (Bird Life International 2016), and is considered rare or very local in its distribution (Rasmussen & Anderton 2012). While working on a floristic survey between December 2014 to February 2015, in and around Bhubaneswar (20.48°N, 85.75°E), Odisha, these pigeons were observed in the semi-urban areas of the city and their feeding preferences were recorded.
Life support plant species among aboriginals of Similipal Biosphere Reserve forest, Odisha: Diversity and Conservation
Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is only Biosphere Reserve of Odisha situated in Mayurbhanj district. Government of India declared Similipal as Biosphere Reserve of the country in 1994. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) added to its list of Biosphere Reserves in May 2009. SBR is a pivot of many aboriginals and PTGs (Primitive tribal groups) of the district. Since long, they have been using many wild plants as a food and medicine for their daily food requirements and primary health care. These plants are wild edible tuber crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers, leaves and other plant parts. These wild edible plant species play an imperative role during famine, critical time and off agricultural seasons, so they are known as Life Support Plant Species (LSPS) for aboriginals in SBR. Therefore, an attempt has been taken to explore these LSPS and their traditional knowledge. Present work also highlights the diversity of these LSPS, and role in sustainable development of aboriginals in SBR.
Empirical Tribal Claims and Correlation with bioactive compounds: A study on Celastrus paniculata Willd., a vulnerable medicinal plant of Odisha
The Present study elucidates the indigenous use of various parts of Celastrus paniculata Willd., a divulged from the structured interview and cross verification with 26 tribal informants of 19 villages of 6 dominant tribe of Odisha. Further it highlights the establishment of correction between the reported tribal claims and presence of such causal bioactive compounds to justify their rationale through phytochemical testing and published literature.
Thalkudi (Centella asiatica L.): A Brain Tonic among the Rural and Tribal Communities of Odisha, India
Odisha is rich in biodiversity of medicinal flora. “Thalkudi” (Centella aciatica L.) is a common important traditional herb have been utilizing as brain tonic and purpose of memory enhancer among the tribal group and rural community of different rural and forest divisions of the state. The present study deals with the documentation from the field survey for highlighting the ethnomedicinal properties and pharmacological activity of Thalkudi (Centella asiatica L.).
Food security and effective medicines continue to be challenging issues for the third world. Functional plants give us some bio-resources having food and medicinal values. Several species of the genus Dioscorea available in tribal Odisha in India are parochially used as food and medicines for various diseases and disorders. Dioscorea is a monocot having starchy tuberous root. Some tubers are sweet and some are bitter in taste, due to their high content of phenolic compounds and other antinutritional factors. These vines have diverse bioactive compounds including steroidal saponin, diosgenin etc. Keeping this in mind, the ethnobotanical values and contents of bioactive compounds of these vines were collected from field and literature survey. The analysis of the obtained data permits to justify its consideration as a future functional food. The present investigation also highlights the importance of wild edible plants as functional foods and their potentials for the formulation of new drugs.